Troubleshooting, upgrading, or just curious? Find out what’s in your system without opening the case. Using these Linux command line tools, you can get details about your hardware and distribution.

I’ve tested these commands in Ubuntu 7.10, but they should all work in other Linux distributions. Unless noted otherwise, all of this software is included by default with Ubuntu.

Graphics card:
glxinfo – details about OpenGL, the Xserver, and your graphics card
glxinfo | grep direct – do you have direct 3d rendering?
glxinfo | grep vendor – graphics card vendor
lspci | grep VGA – specific graphics card model
glxgears – a simple 3d benchmark, prints frame rate to the terminal
xrandr – supported display resolutions

Audio:
lspci | grep Audio – audio controller
aplay --list-devices – more audio device information

Software versions:
cat /etc/issue – current distribution and version
apt-cache showpkg packagename – packagename’s version and dependencies
uname -r - Linux kernel version
uname -a – all kernel details

Networking:
lspci | grep Ethernet – Ethernet controllers
ifconfig – networking interfaces, IP addresses, and more

Processor:
cat /proc/cpuinfo – all processors, clock speeds, flags, and more
cat /proc/loadavg – processor load average for the last 1, 5, and 15 minutes
top – press C key to sort processes by CPU usage

Memory:
cat /proc/meminfo – amount of RAM and swap, and how much is being used for what
free -m – total, used, and free memory shown in MB
top – press M key to sort processes by memory usage

Hard disks:
df -H – partitions, as well as their mount-points and usage in GB
sudo fdisk -l – all partitions, their device names, and positions on disk

USB devices:
lsusb – USB buses and attached devices

Even more:
lshal -m – monitor for hardware changes
lspci – all PCI devices
hwinfo --short (install from package hwinfo) – overview of all hardware, as well as more detailed info
lshw – another program for listing hardware
lshw -html | w3m -T text/html – lists hardware with HTML output in the w3m web browser
uptime – current time elapsed since last reboot, users, and load average

Did I forget anything? Leave a comment below if you have something to add.


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